The speech of 4 phonologically disordered children with place and voicing errors affecting initial stop consonants was described through phonological and acoustic analyses. Productions of target voiced and voiceless alveolar and velar stops were transcribed and acoustically analyzed before and after treatment that was administered on a predetermined contrast. Three of the children produced significant, although largely imperceptible, differences in VOT for a given stop when it represented different adult stops. The presence of productive phonological knowledge, as inferred from acoustic data, facilitated rapid generalization of correct production of the treated contrast. In the absence of acoustically determined productive knowledge, a longer treatment period was necessary to achieve a lower level of production accuracy on the same treated contrast. Sources of speech sound errors for the 4 children were hypothesized by comparing the children's underlying representations determined from both acoustic and descriptive phonological data.