Authors: Kubler A, Neumann N, Kaiser J, Kotchoubey B, Hinterberger T, Birbaumer NP
Title: Brain-computer communication: Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials for verbal communication
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001 82(11): 1533-1539
Year: 2001
Research Design: Single Case Design

OBJECTIVE: To test a training procedure designed to enable severely paralyzed patients to communicate by means of self-regulation of slow cortical potentials. DESIGN: Application of the Thought Translation Device to evaluate the procedure in patients with late-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). SETTING: Training sessions in the patients' homes. PARTICIPANTS: Two male patients with late-stage ALS. INTERVENTIONS: Patients learned voluntary control of their slow cortical potentials by means of an interface between the brain and a computer. Training was based on visual feedback of slow cortical potentials shifts and operant learning principles. The learning process was divided into small steps of increasing difficulty. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accuracy of self-control of slow cortical potentials (percentage of correct responses). Learning progress calculated as a function of training session. RESULTS: Within 3 to 8 weeks, both patients learned to self-regulate their slow cortical potentials and to use this skill to select letters or words in the Language Support Program. CONCLUSIONS: This training schedule is the first to enable severely paralyzed patients to communicate without any voluntary muscle control by using self-regulation of an electroencephalogram potential only. The protocol could be a model for training patients in other brain-computer interface techniques.

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