Many people with jargon aphasia seem unaware of their speech disorder. The first section of this paper reports data from four subjects which indicate that self-monitoring can fail even when subjects' input skills are apparently adequate to detect their errors. Explanations for this dissociation have attributed monitoring failure to a deficit in auditory feedback, or to a resource limitation which prevents concurrent speaking and monitoring. Section 2 reports a series of naming and judging experiments with one of the subjects which rule out these explanations. These show that the subject can detect his neologisms when he is repeating, but not when he is naming. These results suggest that his monitoring difficulties arise when he is accessing phonology from semantics. Section 3 presents a study which supports this inference, since it shows that semantically focused intervention yields improvements in self-monitoring. It is concluded (1) that monitoring failure can arise from deficits within the production process which preclude comparison of actual with intended output, and (2) that this deficit is best explained within a connectionist model in which monitoring is performed by feedback mechanisms in the word production process.