This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with speech and language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings are generally positive, there are large individual differences in response to intervention. Furthermore, there is little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up to typically developing peers in phonological and reading skills. Methodological issues are described, and implications for practice and future research are discussed.