Background: The effect of levodopa on recovery from aphasia is controversial. Objective . To determine whether levodopa enhances the effect of intensive computer-assisted therapy (CAT) of anomia in the postacute stage of aphasia. Methods: Double-blind multiple case study with intrasubject crossover design comparing the effect of levodopa (100 mg) versus placebo, each given for 2 weeks. Subjects: Twelve patients with onset of aphasia from 2 to 9 weeks after stroke or traumatic brain injury were compared on naming performance on items trained and not trained with CAT. Subjects were randomized to either levodopa or placebo first, separated by a 1-week washout, and then switched to the other drug intervention for the second 2-week CAT intervention. The subjects also received routine aphasia therapies during these periods. Results: All patients improved their naming performance for items trained by CAT in both periods ( P = .001). No significant difference was found between the placebo and levodopa phases. Conclusion: Administration of levodopa for 2 weeks during the postacute stage of aphasia did not augment the positive effects of subacute intensive language treatment with CAT for a spoken naming task.