Authors: Kim AH, Vaughn S, Wanzek J, Wei S
Title: Graphic Organizers and Their Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with LD: A Synthesis of Research
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities 2004 37(2): 105-118
Year: 2004
Research Design: Systematic Review

Previous research studies examining the effects of graphic organizers on reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1963 and June 2001 yielded a total of 21 group design intervention studies that met the criteria for inclusion in the synthesis. Using graphic organizers (i.e., semantic organizers, framed outlines, cognitive maps with and without a mnemonic) was associated with improved reading comprehension overall for students with LD. Compared to standardized reading measures, researcher developed comprehension measures were associated with higher effect sizes. Initial gains demonstrated when using graphic organizers were not revealed during later comprehension tasks or on new comprehension tasks.

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