Over the past 20 years a variety of treatments have been developed to remediate deficits associated with autism. Since the early 1990s, Social Stories have been suggested to positively affect the social development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite much research, there remains uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of this modality. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using pre-defined, rigorous methods. Studies were considered eligible if they were controlled trials evaluating Social Stories among persons with ASD. Two reviewers independently screened articles for inclusion, applied eligibility criteria, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. A qualitative analysis was conducted on six eligible controlled trials. Five of the six trials showed statistically significant benefits for a variety of outcomes related to social interaction. This review underscores the need for further rigorous research and highlights some outstanding questions regarding maintenance and generalization of the benefits of Social Stories™.