Authors: Spector A, Orrell M, Davies S, Woods B
Title: Can reality orientation be rehabilitated? Development and piloting of an evidence-based programme of cognition-based therapies for people with dementia
Source: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 2001 11(3-4): 377-397
Year: 2001
Research Design: Randomised Controlled Trial
Rating Score: 04/10
This rating is confirmed
Eligibility specified - Y
Random allocation - Y
Concealed allocation - Y
Baseline comparability - N
Blind subjects - N
Blind therapists - N
Blind assessors - N
Adequate follow-up - N
Intention-to-treat analysis - N
Between-group comparisons - Y
Point estimates and variability - Y

This study describes the development and implementation of a programme of cognition-based therapies for dementia. The programme was designed by distilling the evidence of the effectiveness of Reality Orientation and related approaches, following a broad-based systematic review. The most beneficial elements identified from previous studies were extracted and incorporated into the programme, using the expertise of specialists in the field. The programme comprised of 15 45-min, twice weekly sessions. It ran in one day centre and three residential homes, involving 27 people with dementia (17 treatment and 10 control subjects). The results of the pilot study showed positive trends in cognition, and trends towards reduced depression and anxiety following treatment. No negative effects were identified. We discuss how the outcomes of the pilot study were used to modify the programme, which now has a stronger cognitive element. This refined programme is currently being tested as part of a large multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

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