PURPOSE: Repetition priming has been suggested as a method for targeting implicit processes in anomia treatment. Prior studies have used masked priming for this purpose. This study extends that work with visible primes, a more clinically feasible approach. METHOD: This study used a single-subject design across three participants with aphasia. Treatment involved repeated exposure to identity primes (trained condition) or sham primes (untrained condition) paired with pictures. Analyses assessed acquisition effects for trained items and untrained items that were seen during the training period, generalization to untrained items that had not been seen, and generalization to broader language skills, immediately and 3 months post-treatment. RESULTS: All participants improved in naming trained items immediately after treatment, with greater improvements for trained than for untrained items. All participants maintained some degree of improvement on trained items 3 months post-treatment, although the degree differed across participants. Inconsistent generalization occurred to unexposed items. Improvements were noted in some areas of broader language ability, although these varied. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a repetition priming treatment paradigm may increase naming accuracy for individuals with anomia and may benefit other aspects of language. Participant factors may have influenced response to treatment. Directions for future investigation are discussed.