Authors: Oh JC
Title: Effects of Effortful Swallowing Exercise with Progressive Anterior Tongue Press Using Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) on the Strength of Swallowing-Related Muscles in the Elderly: A Preliminary Study
Source: Dysphagia 2022 37(1): 158-167
Year: 2022
Research Design: Randomised Controlled Trial
Rating Score: 05/10
This rating is confirmed
Eligibility specified - No
Random allocation - Yes
Concealed allocation - No
Baseline comparability - Yes
Blind subjects - No
Blind therapists - No
Blind assessors - No
Adequate follow-up - Yes
Intention-to-treat analysis - No
Between-group comparisons - Yes
Point estimates and variability - Yes

The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of effortful swallowing (ES) exercise programs applied to increase the swallowing-related muscle strength in the elderly. In this study, 20 healthy elderly people (76.65 +/- 5.87 years; 10 women and 10 men) participated and exercised for 7 weeks. The experimental group performed ES exercise combined with external resistance using Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), and the control group performed pure ES without external resistance. The exercises were performed for 20 min a day, 2 days a week for 7 weeks in both groups. ES was repeated 60 times in weeks 1 and 2, 80 times in week 3 and 4, and 120 times in weeks 5-7. In the experimental group, the isometric and swallowing tongue pressures at week 8 were significantly improved compared to baseline. At week 8, the anterior and swallowing tongue pressures and anterior tongue endurance were significantly higher than those of the control group. In the control group, no significant change in tongue pressure-related variables was observed after 7 weeks of exercise. ES exercise combined with IOPI resistance for 7 weeks tended to increase the suprahyoid muscle activation level without statistical significance. For clinical application of this exercise protocol, further studies including more elderly people and patients with dysphagia are required.

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