PURPOSE: Music-based interventions are used in the treatment of childhood speech sound disorders (SSDs). Hypotheses on working mechanisms are being developed, focussing on shared neural processes. However, evidence of the effect of treatment with musical elements in SSDs in children is lacking. This study reviews the literature regarding the use of music-based interventions in the treatment of childhood SSDs. METHOD: A systematic search in six databases was conducted, yielding 199 articles, eight of which met the inclusion criteria. Included articles were reviewed on study characteristics, patient characteristics, interventions, outcomes and methodological quality. RESULT: This review included four case studies, three single-subject design studies and one cohort study. Seven studies reported positive outcomes on speech production, but outcome measures in the four studies with experimental design were not all aimed at the level of speech (motor) processes. Methodological quality was sufficient in one study. CONCLUSION: Seven out of eight studies in this review report positive outcomes of music-based interventions in the treatment of SSDs. However, these outcomes are not sufficiently supported by evidence due to insufficient methodological quality. Suggestions for improving methodological quality in future research are presented.