We systematically reviewed the literature on neural changes following anomia treatment post-stroke. We conducted electronic searches of CINAHL, Cochrane Trials, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE-in-Process and PsycINFO databases; two independent raters assessed all abstracts and full texts. Accepted studies reported original data on adults with post-stroke aphasia, who received behavioural treatment for anomia, and magnetic resonance brain imaging (MRI) pre- and post-treatment. Search results yielded 2481 citations; 33 studies were accepted. Most studies employed functional MRI and the quality of reporting neuroimaging methodology was variable, particularly for pre-processing steps and statistical analyses. The most methodologically robust data were synthesized, focusing on pre- versus post-treatment contrasts. Studies more commonly reported increases (versus decreases) in activation following naming therapy, primarily in the left supramarginal gyrus, and left/bilateral precunei. Our findings highlight the methodological heterogeneity across MRI studies, and the paucity of robust evidence demonstrating direct links between brain and behaviour in anomia rehabilitation.