Measurement of outcomes subsequent to treatment and documentation of the efficiency with which outcomes are achieved is critical information for health-care policy makers and third-party payers. This study emplyed the ASHA Functional Communication Measure (FCM) scales to retrospectively analyze treatment outcome from charts of 20 aphasic patients. By discharge, both severe and moderate groups gained a median (across modalities) of 1 FCM level. The severe group remained dependent for communication, while the moderately impaired group typically achieved independent communication levels. Efficiency (amount of FCM level gain relative to number of treatment sessions) was greater for the moderate group; average number of treatment sessions was 40 for the severe group and 22 for the moderate group.