The recovery processes of 2 English-Japanese bilingual aphasics, one a 69-yr-old man with Broca's aphasia and the other a 52-yr-old man with Wernicke's aphasia, were investigated with special emphasis on the effect of language therapy. The degree of impairment initially manifested in English and Japanese was almost equivalent in each case, the pattern of impairment corresponding to the respective types of aphasia. In both cases, systematic controlled language therapy was conducted. Analysis of the recovery courses revealed that language therapy was a decisive variable in the relative degree of recovery of a bilingual aphasic's 2 languages. The type of aphasia appeared to exert a crucial influence on the relative recovery rate of different modalities.